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Prayer for the Cause of Bishop Bruté

Heavenly Father,
source of all that is holy,
in every age, you raise up
men and women who live lives
of heroic love and service.

You have blessed your Church
through the life of Simon Bruté,
first bishop of Vincennes
and spiritual director
to St. Elizabeth Ann Seton.
Through his prayer, his intellect,
his love, and his pastoral care,
Simon Bruté formed future priests
and guided your Church
in the early days of our country.

If it be your will,
may he be proclaimed a saint.
We ask this through Jesus Christ,
our Lord. —Amen.

(Contributions to defray the expenses in furthering the Cause should be sent to Bishop Bruté Fund, Archdiocese of Indianapolis, P.O. Box 1410, Indianapolis, IN 46206.)

Tags

Bibliography


This bibliography is an ongoing project.
In attempting to learn more about the history of the Catholic Church in Indiana, I chose, what I believed to be,
a number of prominent figures involved in that history and began a search of sources for any mention of these names
or places. This is the result of that search. I have listed my subjects here and click on the name or place and you will
be taken to that line in the bibliography. In addition, there is a companion Bibliography of Sources Consulted
which lists all of the articles and monographs that were searched. Finally, you may want to view this bibliography in PDF format
   


Key:


ACHR – American Catholic Historical Researches
Alerding – Herman J. Alerding
Bartelme – Elizabeth Bartelme (author)
Brown – Sister Mary Borromeo (author)
Catholic Encyclopedia – 1967 edition
Code – Rev. Joseph Code
ICHR – Illinois Catholic Historical Review
Ave Maria – University of Notre Dame
CBSJ – Central Blatt and Social Justice
CMissD – Catholic Mission Digest
OSV – Our Sunday Visitor
Cath Mind – Catholic Mind
RRel – Review for Religious
HospProg – Hospital Progress
GCL – Guide to Catholic Literature
Colburn Monthly – Colburn’s New Monthly, London
Historical Magazine – Dawson’s Magazine, Boston
M West History – Magazine of Western History

ACHS – American Catholic Historical Society
AmCQR – American Catholic Quarterly Review
Bayley – James Roosevelt Bayley (author)
Brute’ – Charles de Remur Brute’ (author)
CHR – Catholic Historical Review
USCHS – U.S. Catholic Historical Society
SLCHR – St. Louis Catholic Historical Review
MidAm – Mid-America Magazine (Loyola Univ.)
Historical Bulletin – St. Louis Univ. Jesuits
C&C – Cross and Crown
CLW – Catholic Library World
Cath Action – Catholic Action
Acta – Acta Apostolicae Sedis
ABR – American Benedictine Review
Cath World – Catholic World, New York
Potter Am Monthly – Potter’s Monthly, Philadelphia
M Am History – Magazine of American History

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Audran, Rev. Ernest (1823-1899)
   ACHS, Jeffersonville Indiana, On the Eudists at Vincennes and especially on Rev. M.E. Clarke, 10:154-155 note; Brown, The History of the Sisters of Providence, Vol-I; Logan, The History of the Sisters of Providence of St. Mary of the Woods, Volume-2; McAvoy, The Catholic Church In Indiana 1789-1834; Schroeder, The Catholic Church in the Diocese of Vincennes 1847-1877; UCHS, 17:42,122; ACHS, Jeffersonville Indiana, On the Eudists at Vincennes and especially on Rev. M.E. Clarke, 10:154-155 note; Brown, The History of the Sisters of Providence, Vol-I; Logan, The History of the Sisters of Providence of St. Mary of the Woods, Volume-2; McAvoy, The Catholic Church In Indiana 1789-1834; Schroeder, The Catholic Church in the Diocese of Vincennes 1847-1877; UCHS, 17:42,122;

Bacquelin, Rev. Vincent (d.1846)
   ACHR, (listed as Rev. M.), 7:100; Brown, The History of the Sisters of Providence Vol-I,;

Bazin, J. Stephen (1796-1848), Bishop of Vincennes, (1847-1848)
   ACHS, reported made Bishop of Vincennes, 7:334; Alerding, History of the Diocese of Vincennes; Brown, The History of the Sisters of Providence; Burton, Faith is the Substance; Catholic Encyclopedia, 2:184, and Sisters of Providence, 13:265, and the Vincennes Diocese, 7:464; CHR, sketch of, 2:287, bibliography of, 5:125; Code, Dictionary of the American Hierarchy; Guilday History of the Councils at Baltimore 1791-1884; Reuss, 12:126; Shea, Hierarchy of the United States, 386; Schroeder, The Catholic Church In the Diocese of Vincennes 1847-1877; Trisco, The Holy See and the Nascent Church in the Middle Western United States 1826- 1850;

Benoit, Rev. Julian (1808-1885)
   Baltimore, Memorial Volume of the Third Plenary Council, 70; Brown, The History of the Sisters of Providence; ICHR, 7:309-22; Logan, The History of the Sisters of Providence of St. Mary of the Woods, Volume-2; Schroeder, The History of the Catholic Church in the Diocese of Vincennes 1847-1877; Reuss, Biographical Cyclopedia, 13; USCHS, M17:76,77;

Bessonies, Rev. August (1815-1901)
   ACHS, mentioned in the war letters of Fr. Paul Cooney CSC, 44:53; Alerding, History of the Diocese of Vincennes; Baltimore, Memorial Volume of the Third Plenary Council, 70; Bartelme, Simon Brute and the Western Adventure; Brown, The History of the Sisters of Providence; Logan, The History of the Sisters of Providence of St. Mary of the Woods, Volume-2; Reuss, Biographical Cyclopedia, 14; Schroeder, The Catholic Church in the Diocese of Vincennes 1847-1877; USCHS, M17:77-79; Webb, Catholicity In Kentucky, 9;

Brute’, Simon Gabriel (1779-1839), First Bishop of Vincennes, (1834-1839)
   ACHR, Account of religion in US, 1837, 8:168-69; 8:153; 8:171; 12:59, 130, 152; 14:50-53, 156; 15:22, 30, 55, 59, 76, 87, 88, 96, 189; 22:396; 23:192-193, 277; papers of, 9:132; consecration of, 10:144; spiritual testament of, 14:101; notes from, 14:192; Sister Benedicta cure, 15:152; poor little negro, 15:189; confirmation visit to Daviess County Indiana in 1838, 15:87; death of, 15:57; account of his installation, 15:55; visitation to Chicago in 1838, 15:96; account of religion at Emmitsburg in 1823, 15:88; visitation in Indiana in 1836, 29:32; 11:125; theology professor at Mount St. Mary’s, 18:34; letter from John Hughes, 18:33; 7:35; from Rev. DuBourg in 1810, 12:128; 6:27, 29; Patrick (Philadelphia 1810), 13:188; ACHS, alluded to, 3:238; superior at Mount St. Mary’s, 5:443; and Gaston, 6:250; becomes bishop, 7:467, 470; vicar of New York on, 8:469; consecration of, 8:472; alluded to at Mount St. Mary’s, 11:438; correspondence with Matthew Carey, 12:98, 101; visit to Visitandines at Kaskaskia, 13:221; boyhood during the French Revolution, 13:325-332; enters priesthood and to America, 13:332-333; extracts from his diary, 13:326-332; and Francis Vezina, 18:294; suggested by DuBourg for new sees in 1822, 19:198; and John David, 19:413; John Hughes writes about Philadel phia, 20:363-364; reply to Hughes, 20:364; to Hughes concerning the 4th of July in 1832, 20:367-368; at Mount St. Mary’s in 1819, 22:240, 243; condemns St. Mary’s Philadelphia agreement of 1826, 28:168; Flaget receives letter from, 29:50, 53, 154; alluded to at Emmitsburg, 29:237, 30:354; and the Chicago mission, 30:359; alluded to as professor at Mount St. Mary’s, 31:185; mentioned by Bishop Kenrick of Baltimore, 32:114; on Samuel Sutherland Cooper, 33:312, 37:323; and St. Gabriel College Vincennes, 38:201; on the Catholic Church in the US 1784-1828, 56:267-268; personal papers lost, 72:5; Alerding, History of the Diocese of Vincennes; AmCQR, A Saintly American Bishop (1920); Bartelme, Simon Brute and the Wetern Adventure; Bayley, Memoirs of the Right Reverend Simon Brute; Brown, The History of the Sisters of Providence of St. Mary of the Woods; Brute, Vie de Monseigneur Brute’ de Remur, Rennes et Paris (1887); Catholic Encyclopedia, 2:842, Sisters of Providence and, 13:265, and John Timon, 14:165, and Vincennes diocese, 7:463; CMissD, Portrait of a bishop (abridged Reed & Rock), 3:22-32 (1945); CHR, sketch, 2:287; papers of, 3:492-494, 4:129-130; Guilday bibliography, 5:127; Godecker biography, 17:489-490; report to Rome in 1836, 29:177- 233; Catholic church in northern Indiana 1830-1857, 25:143-144; and Gaston, 30:394-426; Review of LeMarie’ book, 62:490-493; Clarke, Simon Brute de Remur-St. Meinrad Historical Essays, Vol. 3 (1934), 126-133; Code, Letters of Mother Seton to Mrs Scott (1935); Code, Dictionary of the American Hierarchy; Commonweal, Mr Brute becomes a bishop, 36:224-226 (1942), review of the ‘Reed and the Rock’, 36:401-402 (1942); C&C, review of reprint of Bayley biography, 24:211 (1972); Dirvin, Mrs. Seton; Dunne, Souvenir of Archbishop Feehan; Easterly, The Life of Bishop Rosati; Eaton, US Catholic Historian, Vol-2, Nos. 2-4; Eaton, American Necrology of the Society of St. Sulpice, 15-16; Emmanuel, 69:116- 122 (1963); Extension, Fr. Gibault hero of Vincennes, 28:4; Fortnightly Review, review of Godecker book, 38:269-270; Garraghan, Chapters in Frontier History; Garraghan, The Jesuits of the Middle United States, I:196, 380, desires Jesuit coadjutor, II:118-119, offers property to Jesuits, III:112-113; Godecker, Simon Brute’ de Remur; Godecker, Rt. Rev. Simon Brute-Part II- Priestly Career in Maryland 1810-1834; GCL, mention of Godecker book; Guilday, A History of the Councils of Baltimore 1791-1884; Guilday, John Gilmary Shea Father of American Catholic History (1926); Guilday, The Life and Times of John England; Guilday, The Life and Times of John Carroll (1922); Guilday, The National Pastorals of the American Hierarchy, 119; Historical Bulletin, Vincennes 1834-1934, 12:63-65; Hughes, The Influence of the Catholic Church on Illinois, 27; Kelly, Numerous Choirs; Kleber, History of St. Meinrad Archabbey 1854- 1954, 22-23, 27-28; Lamennais, Lettres inedites de J.M. & F. De LaMennais, addressees a Mgr Brute De Rennes; LeMarie, Monseigneur Brute de Remur; Maynard, The Reed and the Rock; Maynard, The Story of American Catholicism; McAvoy, The Catholic Church In Indiana 1789-1834; McCaffrey, Discourse on in 1858, 163-233; McCann, The History of Mother Seton’s Daughters; McNamara, The Catholic Church on the Northern Indiana Frontier 1789-1844; McSweeney, The Story of the Mountain; Melville, Elizabeth Bayley Seton; Melville, Jean Lefebvre de Cheverus 1768-1836 (1958); Melville, John Carroll of Baltimore, 133-134, 242; MidAm, Bishop Brute of Vincennes, 4:151-165, letters of John Grassi to, 4:245-265, correspondence on Indian removal 1835- 1838, 4:177-192 (1933); O’Grady, Catholic Charities in the United States; OSV, Child of Two Revolutions, 65:16 (1976); Regis, The Catholic Bookman’s Guide; Reuss, Biographical Cyclopedia, 18; Ruane, The Beginnings of the Society of St. Sulpice in the United States 1791- 1829; St. Mary’s, Seminary of St. Sulpice Centenary Memorial Volume; Schauinger, Cathedrals in the Wilderness; Schroeder, The Catholic Church in the Diocese of Vincennes, 1847-1877; Schulte. The Catholic Heritage of St. Louis; Seton, Memoirs, Letters, and Journal of Elizabeth Seton (2 vols.); Shanabruch, Chicago’s Catholics, 5-6; Shaw, Dagger John; Shaw, John Dubois: Founding Father; Shea, Hierarchy of the United States, 383-384; Shea, History of the Catholic Church 1808-1843 (vol. 3); Shea, The Life and Times of John Carroll, 398; SLCHR, and the mission at Chicago, 1:201-214 (1919); CBSJ, Indiana 1834-1840, 53:165-167, 200-203, 236-240, 272-275 (1960); Spalding, Life of Bishop Flaget; Trisco, The Holy See and the Nascent Church in the Middle Western United States 1826-1850; Trisco (ed.), Catholics In America, 35; USCHS, 2:(pt.1)60, 7:19, 9:136, 10:15, 31:27, 77, 47:138, M2:221, 279-280, 358fn, M8:xxvi, M9:44, 47, 80, 89, 123, 162, 163-167, 170, 178, 193, 199, 208, 209, 213, M13:129, M15:116, M17:63, 69, 83, 97fn, 98fn, Badin and, 9:38, Bayley on and Cardinal McCloseky, 1:49, Benoit and, M17:76, 77, bibographical data, 8:60-61, 10:56-64, 47:216fn, Cheverus and, 45:25, 26, 29, Joseph Cloriviere and 8:206, 208, consecration as Bishop of Vincennes, M13:169, 171, Dubois and, 5:217, Mme. Dubois and, 1:279, Joseph Fesch, Cardinal McCloskey and, 2:274-276, Flaget and, 8:61, funeral oration by John McCaffrey, 9:68, William Gaston and, 32:83-86, John Grassi and, 47:216, Pope Gregory XVI and, 2:274, 276, 277, Holy Cross congregation and, 11:21, interest in Jasper Indiana, M17:65-67, Leopoldine Foundation and, M13:156, 159, 171-175, 180, 186, John McCloskey and, 1:48-49, 2:(pt.2)274-276, 277, 279, 280, 281, memoirs of, 5:552, Mount St. Mary’s and 1:294, 295, 297, 298, 301, 7:85, 8:60-62, 68, 78, 79, Notre Dame and, 11:18, 21, 29, Oblate Sisters of Providence and, 9:92, on Father Farmer, 6:(pt.2)243, on priesthood, 1:60-61, on Ursulines, 31:42, Benjamin Petit and, 11:18, papers of, 17:40-42, 143, 147-148, Piquet settlement and, M17:94, 95, 97, J. Power and, 2:279, publication proposed by, 32:44, Elizabeth Ann Seton and, 9:85, Sisters of Charity and, 1:301, successor of Vincennes, 32:44, Vincennes paintings of, 2:275-276, 280-281, writings of, 25:14; Webb, Catholicity in Kentucky, 174, 210; White, The Life of Mrs Eliza A. Seton; Woodstock, Nicholas Petit as Coadjutor, 31:39-44 (1902);

Chartrand, Joseph, Bishop of Indianapolis 1918-1933 (1870-1933)
   America, Obituary of, 50:267 (1933); Ave Maria, Obituary of, 39:22 (1934); Cath Action, Obituary of, 16:17 (1934); Cath Mind, Agriculture and Catholic Principles, 31:252-260 (1933); CHR, sketch of, 2:287; Code, Dictionary of the American Hierarchy; Columbia, Portrait of, 11:12 (1931); Extension, Portrait of, 25:45, 97 (1930), 46:15 (1952); Far East, Portrait of, 14:11 (1931); Kleber, History of St. Meinrad Archabbey 1854-1954; Langen, Joseph Chartrand-St. Meinrad Historical Essays, 3:153-164 (1934); Tablet, Obituary of, 162:860 (1933); USCHS, Notre Dame Diamond Jubilee, 11:16;

Chasse, John B. (1816-1879)

   ACHR, 7:101; Brown, The History of the Sisters of Providence of St. Mary of the Woods; Logan, The History of the Sisters of Providence of St. Mary of the Woods, Volume-2; Schroeder, The Catholic Church in the Diocese of Vincennes 1847-1877; USCHS, M17:100-101;

Chatard, Francis Silas, Bishop of Indianapolis 1878-1918, (1834-1918)
   ACHS, mentioned by Bishop Kenrick, 51:234, mentioned as rector of North American College, 55:312; Ahern, The Life of John Keane; Alerding, History of the Diocese of Vincennes; Baltimore, Memorial Volume of the Third Plenary Council, 70, 90, 255-267; Brown, The History of the Sisters of Providence of St. Mary of the Woods; Catholic Encyclopedia, 3:519, Sisters of Providence and, 13:265, and Vincennes diocese, 7:464; CHR, sketch of, 2:287, Guilday bibliography of, 5:292, mentioned of in Catholic Education in the 3rd Plenary Council of Baltimore, 34:257ff; Code, Dictionary of the American Hierarchy; Curran, Michael Augustine Corrigan and the Shaping of Conservative Catholicism 1878-1902, Apostolic Delegate, 367, Instruction of 1878, 13n, 15, McGlynn, 185-186, 205, 250, 269, school question, 354n; Ellis, The Life of James Cardinal Gibbons; and the AOH, 1:453, and the Knights of Labor, 1:453, on labor unions, 1:215, 448, mentioned for the see of Richmond, 1:160, 169, at the Third Plenary Council of Baltimore, 1:260n, unfounded rumors in the McGlynn case, 1:566; Garraghan, The Jesuits of the Middle United States, III:503 (cf. Henry Chatard II,136); GCL, articles by, 209; Kleber, The History of St. Meinrad Archabbey 1854-1954; Logan, The History of the Sisters of Providence of St. Mary of the Woods, Volume-2; McSorley, Father Hecker and his friends, 209; McSweeney, The Story of the Mountain; Reuss, Biographical Cyclopedia, 22-23; Shanabruch, Chicago Catholics, and the AOH, 83, 85; Shea, Hierarchy of the United States, 388; Spalding, The Life of Archbishop Spalding, 430; Strange, Francis Silas Chatard-St. Meinrad Historical Essays, 3:153-163 (1934); USCHS, 6:(pt.1)188-189, 43:18, 50:135fn, M22:104, 108- 110, 112, 141, 142, 145, 146, 152, 174, M24:82; Zwierlein, Letters of Archbishop Corrigan to Bishop McQuaid;

Deydier, Anthony (d. 1864)
   ABR, and Roman Weinzoepfel, 11:155-160 (1960); Brown, History of the Sisters of St. Mary of the Woods, 341, 420, 475, et al; McCann, The History of Mother Seton’s Daughters-Vol. I, 247; Ruane, The Beginnings of the Society of St. Sulpice in the United States 1791-1829, 65; St. Mary, Seminary of Saint Sulpice Memorial Volume 50; Schroeder, The Catholic Church in the Diocese of Vincennes 1847-1877; Shaw, John Dubois, Founding Father, 77; USCHS, 12:105; Webb, Catholicity in Kentucky, 210;

DuPontavice, Hippolyte (d.1874)
   ACHR, 7:103 (at Chicago, 1843); Brown, History of the Sisters of Providence of St. Mary of the Woods; Catholic Enyclopedia, and the Joliet Illinois area, 7:1092; Dunne, Souvenir of Archbishop Feehan, 15; Hughes, The Influence of the Catholic Church on Illinois, 27; Logan, The History of the Sisters of Providence of St. Mary of the Woods, Volume-2; Schroeder, The Catholic Church in the Diocese of Vincennes 1847-1877;

Ferneding, Joseph (d.1872)
   Bartelme, Simon Brute and the Western Adventure; CBSJ, Mitteilungen Zurn Leben Des Pioneer Priesters, 13:344 (1921); McAvoy, The Catholic Church in Indiana 1789- 1834; McCann, The History of Mother Seton’s Daughters- Volume I, 84; McNamara, The Catholic Church on the Northern Indiana Frontier 1789-1844; MidAm, Two Pioneer Indiana Priests, 1:63-81 (1929); Webb, Catholicity in Kentucky, 515;

Gueguen, John (d.1893)
   ACHR, (spelled Guignen), Indianapolis 1848, 7:100; Brown, A History of the Sisters of Providence of St. Mary of the Woods; Dunne, Souvenir of Archishop Feehan, 15; Logan, A History of the Sisters of Providence of St. Mary of the Woods, Volume-2; Schroeder, The Catholic Church in the Diocese of Vincennes 1847-1877;

Guerin, Mother Theodore SP, (1798-1856)
   ACHS, 20:107; Acta, Causa beatificationis et canonizationis etc., 48:586-589; America, 57:239, June 12, 1937; Brown, History of the Sisters of Providence of St. Mary of the Woods; Ave Maria, Review of Journals and Letters, 45:731 (1937), Pattern of a Life, 52:463- 467 (1940); Burton, Faith is the Substance; Catholic Encyclopedia, 6:832, portrait of, 13:265, and St. Mary of the Woods, 12:918, and the Sisters of Providence, 13:264; Extension, One Hundred Years of Providence, 35:5-6 (1940); Garraghan, The Jesuits of the Middle United States, II:50; GCL, articles about, 480; Sr Joseph Eleanor, Call To Courage (1968); Kleber, The History of St. Meinrad Archabbey 1854-1954, 28, 62; Logan, The History of the Sisters of Providence of St. Mary of the Woods-Vol. 2; MidAm, 8:222, July 1937; Mug, Life and Work of Mother Theodore (1904), Journals and Letters of Mother Theodore (1937); RRel, Mother Theodore Guerin, 15:189-201 (1956); Schroeder, The Catholic Church in the Diocese of Vincennes 1847-1877; Sign, Review of Journals and Letters, 17:123-124 (1937); USCHS, 3(pt.2):447, 31:7, M17:71, M20:36;

Hailandiere, Celestine de la, Bishop of Vincennes 1839-1847, (1798-1882)
   ACHR, 14:138, 15:110; ACHS, resigns from Vincennes, 7:334, alluded to, 7:342, 359, 365, 366, and the Eudists at Vincennes, 10:154, letter from M.A. Frenaye, 30:353-354, writes to James Edwards and mentions fate of Brute papers, 72:5; Alerding, History of the Diocese of Vincennes; Bartelme, Simon Brute and the Western Adventure; Brown, A History of the Sisters of Providence of St. Mary of the Woods; Burton, Faith is the Substance; Catholic Encyclopedia, and Edward Sorin, 13:441, and the Sisters of Providence, 13:265; CHR, 25:144, sketch of, 2:287, Guilday bibliography, 6:128; Code, Dictionary of the American Hierarchy; Garraghan, The Jesuits of the Middle United States, III:113, 115; Guilday, A History of the Councils at Baltimore 1791- 1884; Guilday, The National Pastorals of the American Hierarchy, 149, 160, 169; Logan, The History of the Sisters of Providence of St. Mary of the Woods, Volume- 2; McAvoy, The Catholic Church in Indiana 1789-1834; McCann, The History of Mother Seton’s Daughters-Volume I, 245, 266, 272, Volume-II, 5; McNamara, The Catholic Church on the Northern Indiana Frontier 1789-1844; Maloney, Celestine de la Hailandiere-St. Meinrad Historical Essays, 3:132-143 (1934); Reuss, Biographical Cyclopedia, 51; Schroeder, The Catholic Church in the Diocese of Vincennes 1847-1877; Shanabruch, Chicago’s Catholics, 6; Shea, Hierarchy of the United States, 385; Shea, History of the Catholic Church-Volume 3; Trisco, The Holy See and the Nascent Church in the Middle Western United States 1826-1850; USCHS, 11:22, 17:41, 28:17, 32:44, M17:69, 73, 77, 83, 94-95, 98, 99, 135, 136fn, Sisters of Providence and, 3(pt.2):447;

Indiana:
   ACHR, 6:95, 7:100, Fr. Badin applies to legislature for orphan asylum, 25:26, and Fr. Shawe, 14:57, first Christian worship in, 11:192, first priest of, 25:394, and Indianapolis, 8:192, letter of missionary, 9:192, and Madison, 14:57, mission of, 11:113, school book in 1843, 27:253, State of, 3:50, visitation of Brute in 1836, 29:32; ACHS, readings in Indiana history noted, 25:373-375, Catholic periodicals in the state, 4:224, 19:19, 30, no priest in 1815, 27:131, included in the Bardstown diocese, 29:37, St. Meinrad-Martin Marty and, vol.49, the Catholic Church in the US 1784-1828, vol.56, the Catholic Church in the US 1852-1868, vol.59 (cf. pp 91-100), Indiana historiography and the founding of Vincennes, 60:41-52 (1949); the old French frontier in the Great Lakes region, 65:230-239; Ave Maria, Indiana becomes a metropolitan see, 60:370 (1944) Brown, History of the Sisters of Providence of St. Mary of the Woods; Catholic Encyclopedia, 7:461ff; CBSJ, Memorial to lay pioneers in Fort Wayne, 24:288 (1931); CHR, Catholic Church in 1815, 1:308, Esaray history, 4:272, early extant records, 19:31, Catholic church in northern Indiana, 25:135-145, notice of publication of Doyle book, 63:494; Columbia, Vincennes-Cradle of a Nation, 10:14-15 (1931); Doyle, The Catholic Church in Indiana 1686-1814 (1976); GCL, mention of Alerding, Godecker, McNamara, Kleber (St. Joseph, Jasper), Pagani, and Wilken (Holy Family Oldenburg), (cf. Catholic Church in US-Indiana); Guilday, The Life and Times of John England 1786-1842; Historical Bulletin, Catholic Education in Indiana, (McAvoy), 23:55-61 (1946); Kleber, History of St. Meinrad Archabbey 1854-1954; Ligourian, The Strange Case of Fr. Weinzaepfel, 42:93-98 (1954); Logan, The History of the Sisters of Providence of St. Mary of the Woods Volume-II 1856-1894; Melville, John Carroll of Baltimore, 236-237, 240, 310n.30; MidAm, Correspondence concerning Indian Removal 1835- 1838, 4:177-192 (1933); McAvoy, The Catholic Church in Indiana 1789-1834; McCann, The History of Mother Seton’s Daughters-Volume I, 64, 137; McNamara, The Catholic Church on the Northern Indiana Frontier 1789- 1844; Mindrup, Catholicism in Indiana before 1834-St. Meinrad Historical Essays, 3:102-111 (1934); Pagani, 200 Years of Catholicism in Indiana (1934); Schauinger, Cathedrals in the Wilderness, 130, 183; Schuckman, The place of the Catholic Church in the development of early Indiana (1952); Schuthuis, Pioneer Bishops of Indiana (1950); Shea, Early Catholicity in Indiana-Ave Maria, 18:301-304 (1882); Shea, History of the Catholic Church (4 vols.); Trisco, The Holy See and the Nascent Church in the Middle Western United States 1826-1850; USCHS, Catholic immigrant colonization projects and, M17:64-84, 270, 271, 272, early church history, 33:37, Mudd family members in World-War I, service from, 25:37;

         (Also see entries under "Vincennes")

Indianapolis – (City and Diocese of):
   ACHR, 8:192, 15:56; CHR, diocesan episcopal succession, 2:287, bibliography, 4:272, museum at, 19:363; Brown, The History of the Sisters of Providence of St. Mary of the Woods; Catholic Encyclopedia, 7:463, and Chatard’s episcopate, 3:519, Illustration (text), 7:465, Map, 7:462, 466; Columbia, 19:3-4 (1940), Convention held at, 57:6-13 (1977); Commonweal, In Old Vincennes, 20:74 (1934) Garraghan, The Jesuits of the Middle United States, invited to Indianapolis, III:115, 503; Haas, Geschichte der Herz Jesu Gemeinde in Indianapolis 1875- 1900; HospProg, 120 Years of Service at St. Vincent’s, 32:52A (1951); Kleber, The History of St. Meinrad Archabbey 1854-1954; Logan, The History of the Sisters of Providence of St. Mary of the Woods, Volume-2; McAvoy, The Catholic Church in Indiana 1789-1834; McNamara, The Catholic Church on the Northern Indiana Frontier 1789-1844; Pfau, History of Secondary Education in the Diocese of Indianapolis (1934); Richard, Souvenir of the Golden Jubilee of Sacred Heart Parish (1925); Schroeder, The Catholic Church in the Diocese of Vincennes 1847-1877; Spalding, The Life of Archbishop Spalding, 252; Trisco, The Holy See and the Nascent Church in the Middle Western United States 1826- 1850; USCHS, 9:138;

Kundek, Joseph (1810-1857):
   ABR, 11:159-160fn (1960); ACHS, Pastor of Jasper Indiana founds a new town that thrives 1839-1840, 20:97- 98, reports on Jasper parish 1840, 20:107, secures Benedictines from Einsiedeln, 49:215; Bartelme, Simon Brute and the Western Advenure; Brown, The History of the Sisters of Providence of St. Mary of the Woods; Catholic Encyclopedia, and the Indiana missions, 4:467, and St. Meinrad, 12:924; CBSJ, Indiana 1834-1840, 53:274 et al; Kleber, The History of St. Meinrad Archabbey 1854-1954; Logan, The History of the Sisters of Providence of St. Mary of the Woods-Volume II 1856- 1894; McAndrews, Father Joseph Kundek 1810-1857, A Missionary Priest of the Diocese of Vincennes (1955); MidAm, Two Pioneer Indiana Priests, 1:63-81 (1929); Schroeder, The Catholic Church in the Diocese of Vincennes 1847-1877; USCHS, (spelled Kundeck), M11:184, M17;2, 4 , 66-75, 97, 146;

Lalumiere, Simon Petit (1804-1857):
   ACHR, Washington Indiana 1841, 7:100, 12:30, 15:55-56, sent to purchase lots, 27:255; ACHS, Washington Indiana, letters from M.A. Frenaye, 14:85, 86; Bartelme, Simon Brute and the Western Adventure; Brown, The History of the Sisters of Providence of St. Mary of the Woods; Catholic Encyclopedia, and the Vincennes diocese, 7:464; Dunne, Souvenir of Archbishop Feehan, 5, 6, 13; Kleber, The History of St. Meinrad Archabbey 1854-1954, 22; Logan, The History of the Sisters of Providence of St. Mary of the Woods, Volume-2; McAvoy, The Catholic Church in Indiana 1789-1834; McNamara, The Catholic Church on the Northern Indian Frontier 1789- 1844; MidAm, Correspondence on Indian Removal 1835- 1838, 4:177-192 (1933); Schauinger, Cathedrals in the Wilderness, 285; Schroeder, The Catholic Church in the Diocese of Vincennes 1847-1877; Shea, History of the Catholic Church (vol.3), 641-648; USCHS, 10:60, M9:200, M17:63, 193; Webb, Catholicity in Kentucky, 349;

Petit, Benjamin Marie (d. 1839):
   Ave Maria, Apostle of the Pottawattomies, 44:545-549 (1936), review of the Trail of Death, 54:539 (1941); Bartelme, Simon Brute and the Western Adventure; Bollig, Catholic Education in Kansas 1836-1932, 12; Brown, The History of the Sisters of Providence of St. Mary of the Woods; Catholic Encyclopedia, and American Indian Missions, 1:403; CHR, 25:20-21, 142, review of the Trail of Death, 27:526 (1942); McAvoy, The Catholic Church in Indiana 1789-1834; Garraghan, The Jesuits of the Middle United States, II:180 et seq. death of, 187- 188, unfounded charges against, 196-199; McKee, The Trail of Death, Letters of Benjamin Marie Petit, (1941); McNamara, The Catholic Church on the Northern Indiana Frontier 1789-1844; Maynard, The Story of American Catholicism; Mid Am, Correspondence on Indian Removal 1835-1838, 4:177-192 (1933), review of the Trail of Death, 24:145 (1942); Schroeder, The Catholic Church in the Diocese of Vincennes 1847-1877; Shea, Catholic Missions Among Indian Tribes of the U.S., 397-398; Shea, History of the Catholic Church (vol. 3), 654, 694; USCHS, 11:17, 18-20;

Petit, Louis Nicholas S.J.:
   ACHR, Master of Ceremonies at Brute Consecration, 15:55; Brown, The History of the Sisters of Providence of St. Mary of the Woods; Dunne, Souvenir of Archbishop Feehan, 5; Garraghan, The Jesuits of the Middle United States, II:118-119, 220n, III:255, 294; McAvoy, The Catholic Church in Indiana 1789-1834; Schauinger, Cathedrals in the Wilderness; Trisco, The Holy See and the Nascent Church in the Middle Western United States 1826-1850; Webb, Catholicity in Kentucky, 349; Woodstock, Father Nicholas Petit and the Cadjutorship of the Diocese of Vincennes, 31:39-44 (1902);


Picot, Charles Laurence:
   ACHR, Pastor at Vincennes, Imprisoned for debt in 1833, 15:16, 26:254; Brown, A History of the Sisters of Providence of St. Mary of the Woods; Kleber, The History of St. Meinrad Archabbey 1854-1954, 22; McAvoy, The Catholic Church in Indiana 1789-1834; Schauinger, Cathedrals in the Wilderness; Trisco, The Holy See and the Nascent Church in the Middle Western United States 1826-1850; USCHS, M9:200; Webb, Catholicity in Kentucky, 349;

St. Palais, Maurice de, Bishop of Vincennes 1848-1877, (1811-1877):
   ACHR, 7:100, 27:255; ACHS, visit to ruins of Kaskaskia, 13:224, ordered destruction of Vincennes diocesan documents, 21:103, at First Plenary Council of Baltimore, 39:328, mention of request for Benedictines of Einsiedeln, 49:215, the Catholic Church in the US 1852-1868, 59:96-97, Alerding, History of the Diocese of Vincennes; Brown, The History of the Sisters of Providence of St. Mary of the Woods; Catholic Encyclopedia, and the Vincennes diocese, 7:464; CHR, sketch, 2:287, 25:144, as investigator in Bp. McCloskey affair, 50:570; Code, Dictionary of the American Hierarchy; Dunne, Souvenir of Archbishop Feehan, 15; Garraghan, The Jesuits in the Middle United States, II:37, III,410; Guilday, The National Pastorals of the American Hierarchy, 180, 225; Hughes, The Influence of the Catholic Church on Illinois, 27; Kleber, The History of St. Meinrad Archabbey 1854-1954; Logan, The History of the Sisters of Providence of St. Mary of the Woods Volume-2; McAvoy, The Catholic Church in Indiana 1789-1834; McCann, The History of Mother Seton’s Daughters, Volume-II, 153, 178; Nolan, Maurice de St. Palais, St. Meinrad Historical Essays, 3:144-152 (1934); Reuss, Biographical Cyclopedia, 102; Schroeder, The Catholic Church in the Diocese of Vincennes 1847-1877; Shanabruch, Chicago’s Catholics, 5, 7; Shaw, Dagger John, 2; Shea, Hierarchy of the United States, 387; Sweeney, Bishop Maurice de St. Palais at the Vatican Council, St. Meinrad Historical Essays, 12:9-19 (1961); Trisco, The Holy See and the Nascent Church in the Middle Western United States 1826-1850; USCHS, 17:32, 42, 24:294, M17:64fn, 65, 67, 75, 83, 98, Vatican Council-I and, 28:15, 27, 46, 50:34;

Shawe, Michael Edgar Evelyn (1792-1853):
   ACHR, 15:83, 87, 122, 19:163, death of, 14, 61; Bartelme, Simon Brute and the Western Adventure; Brown, The History of the Sisters of Providence of St. Mary of the Woods; Shea, History of the Catholic Church (vol. 3), 646;

Vincennes Indiana:
   ACHR, 6:42, 95, 136, 20:111, 23:345, 26:254, bishop of- spiritual testament of Brute, 15:57, diocese of, 18:13, 135, Catholic cathedral, 9:192, letter of Bishop Carroll to Catholics of in 1806, 14:111, Flaget on the dissensions at, 11:134, 1788-The Inhabitants pass for the Idlest in all America, 28:58, the oath of, 28:394, pastoral of, 10:144, Picot imprisoned at, for debt in 1833, 15:16, Post of, 28:398; ACHS, Hailandiere wishes to resign, 7:328, 332, resignation of Hailandiere, 7:334, erection of see at, 7:467, 470, vacant by resignation, 8:502, Hailandiere alluded to, 8:503, records of St. Francis Xavier parish 1749-1773, 12:41- 60, 193-211, 322-336, George Rogers Clark’s success due to French at, 12:453, origin and fate of founder-Sieur de Vincennes, 12:460, Fr. Meurin at and character of in 1768, 12:473-474, visited by Gibault and Meurin, 12:474- 475, Gibault’s role in winning over to the American side, 12:485-486, lost and recovered by Clark, 12:486- 487, later visits of Gibault to, 12:487-488, Gibault takes up residence at, 12:490, Gibault leaves for Cahokia, 12:491, description at the close of the 18th century, 12:493-494, and Brute, 13:333, Fr. Blanc at, 14:205-206, Gibault and ecclesiastical property at, 18:162, 163, new priest at, 18:168-170, Sisters of Providence arrive in 1840, 20:107, German Catholic parish of in 1840, 20:109, school system of diocese of, 20:115, Bishop Briand’s promise to send Gibault to in 1769, 20:408, 410-414, 416-418, Fr. Gibault at in 1786, 20:426-429, a priest for in 1788, 20:430, the Catholic Church in the US 1784-1828, 56:245ff, the Catholic Church in the US 1852-1868, 59:91-100 et al, Indiana Historiography and the Founding of Vincennes, 60:41-52; Alerding, History of the Catholic Church in the Diocese of Vincennes; Bartelme, Simon Brute and the Western Adventure; Brown, The History of the Sisters of Providence of St. Mary of the Woods; Catholic Encyclopedia, 14:678, diocese of, 1:287, illustration, 14:678; CLW, Library at St. Francis Xavier Church, 21:117 (1950); CHR, Flaget visit to, 1:317, episcopal succession, 2:287, Chickesaw raid, 2:400, earliest history of, 15:359-362, Brute’s report to Rome in 1836, 29:177-233, correspondence of an 18th century bishop with his missionaries 1767-1778, 27:186-209, trusteeism 1800-1850, 30:155-164, notice of publication of Doyle book, 63:494; Columbia, Cradle of a Nation, 10:14-15 (1931); Commonweal, Conquest of Vincennes, 24:95-98 (1936); Donnelly, Pierre Gibault-Missionary; Doyle, The Catholic Church in Indiana 1686-1814; Dunn, Souvenir of Archbishop Feehan; Easterly, The Life of Joseph Rosati; Garraghan, Chapters in Frontier History; Garraghan, The Jesuits in the Middle United States, I:7; Gorman, Indiana Historiography and the Founding of Vincennes (see ACHS 60:41-52); Guilday, The Life and Times of John Carroll (1922); Historical Bulletin, Vincennes, 1834-1934, 12:63-65 (1934); Kelly, Numerous Choirs, Volume-I The Seton Years; Kleber, The History of St. Meinrad Archabbey 1854-1954; McAvoy, The Catholic Church in Indiana 1789-1834; McCann, The History of Mother Seton’s Daughters, Vols. 1&2; McNamara, The Catholic Church on the Northern Indiana Frontier 1789-1844; Maynard, The Story of American Catholicism; Melville, John Carroll of Baltimore, languishes, 236, Flaget’s visit to, 237, Rivet there, 310n.30; MidAm, Old Vincennes, 2:324-340 (1931), Abbe’ Rivet at Vincennes 1795-1804, 29:24-33 (1947); Shea, History of the Catholic Church (vols. 1,3); Schauinger, Cathedrals in the Wilderness; Schroeder, The Catholic Church in the Diocese of Vincennes 1847-1877; Shanabruch, Chicago’s Catholics, 5-7; Shea, The Life and Times of John Carroll (1888), 115, 117, 127-128, 132, 186-190, 466, 469-471, 484, 530; Trisco, The Holy See and the Nascent Church in the Middle Western United States 1826-1850; USCHS, 34:51, 35:116, 125, 131, 134, 136-139, M9:15, 22, 105, 128, 162-170, American Revolution and, 35:120-122, 136, 137, Simon Brute and, 10:58-64, George Rogers Clark and 6(pt.2):136, diocese of, M13:171-175, 186, creation of the diocese, 33:37, 35:126, M17:63, first resident priest at, 35:116, Benedict Flaget and, 35:138-140, Pierre Gibault and, 6(pt.2):132-133, 136, 35:118, Oath of (1778), 4(pt.2):151, retaken by the English, 6(pt.2):138, St. Francis Xavier church at, 35:117, Edward Sorin and, 11:23, University of, 35:98, Vincennes Emigrant Society, M17:6, 105; Walker, The Catholic Church in the Meeting of the Two Frontiers;
         (also see under Indiana)

Vincennes, Sieur de:
   CHR, in Indiana, 15:362; Bartelme, Simon Brute and the Western Adventure; Doyle, The Catholic Church in Indiana 1686-1814; Garraghan, Chapters in Frontier History, 6-7, 9-10; Trisco, Catholics In America, 9; USCHS, M13:172; Walker, The Catholic Church in the Meeting of Two Frontiers;

Weinzapfel, Roman OSB (1813-1895):
   ABR, The Schwenninger Memorial, 11:155-160 (1960); Alerding, History of the Catholic Church in the Diocese of Vincennes; Brown, The History of the Sisters of Providence of St. Mary of the Woods; Catholic Encyclopedia, and the effects of nativism, 7:464; Kleber, The History of St. Meinrad Archabbey 1854-1954; Ligourian, The Strange Case of Fr. Weinzaepfel, 42:93-98 (1954); Schroeder, The Catholic Church in the Diocese of Vincennes 1847-1877; Shea, History of the Catholic Church (vol.3), 654;


        BIBLIOGRAPHY ADDENDUM

Audran, Rev. Ernest (1823-1899):
   Rudolph, Endelman, Religion In Indiana-A Guide to Historical Resources, 172;

Bazin, Stephen, Bishop of Vincennes 1848-1848:
   Maloney, John Stephen Bazin – St. Meinrad Historical Essays, Vol-3, No-4 (1937), 141-43; Rudolph, Endelman, 136; Schauinger, Stephen T. Badin, Badin attends consecration of, 279; Schultheis Pioneer Bishops of Indiana, (1950);

Benoit, Julian:
   Fort Wayne, Biographical sketch by a clergyman of the episcopal household, (1885);

Brute`, Simon Gabriel, Bishop of Vincennes 1834-1839:
   Ave Maria, "Letters from Bishop David", Volume 5, Numbers 34,35, August 21, 28, 1869; Bros. of Holy Cross, Story of St. Francis Xavier Cathedral (n.d.); Cadden, Historiography of the American Church, 55; Cath World, Review of Bayley book by R. McSperry, 17:711 (1873); Celeste, Elizabeth Ann Seton, A Self Portrait, 183, 189-92, 199, 251; Ellis, Priests in U.S., 9, 16ff, 301; Daughters of Charity, Remembrances of Mother Seton; Garraghan, The Catholic Church In Chicago (1921); ICHR, Beginnings of the Church in Indiana, Vol-4, No-1 (1921), 107-112; Kelly, Elizabeth Seton, Selected Writings; McDonald, 54, 217, 226, 338; Melville, Louis William DuuBourg, Volume I & II; Nakhleh, Emmitsburg: History and Society; St. Mary of the Woods, Brute’s connection to the community (1886); Rudolph-Endelman, Religion In Indiana, 133, 136, 172, 174; Schauinger, Stephen T. Badin, 4, 194, 276, consecrated, 250, first bishop, 254, in France, 198; Smith, Brute` Angel Guardian of the Mountain;

Chartrand, Joseph, Bishop of Indianapolis 1918-1933 (1870-1933):
   Divita, Remembering Bishop Chartrand (1983); McNicholas, Funeral Sermon for Bp. Chartrand, St. Meinrad Hist. Essays, Vol-3, No-1, Jan. 1934, 7-14; Rudolph-Endelman, Religion In Indiana, 136;

Chatard, Francis Silas, Bishop of Vincennes and Indianapolis 1878-1918:
   AmCQR, Roman Catholics and the Public Schools, 15:566 (1890); Ellis, Priests in the U.S., 48, 205, 239, 247f; Fogarty, The Vatican and the Americanist Crisis, 191, Bishop of Vincennes, 31, 41, Rector of the North American College, 15, 18, 30, secret societies, 41, 155, 158; Fogarty, The Vatican and the American Hierarchy, Bishop of Vincennes, 20-21, 25, 32, 94, 130, Rector of the North American College, 3-7, 9, 20; Kleber, Dakota Document-Letters to Bp. Marty, St. Meinrad Historical Essays, Vol-10, No-1, May 1952, 6-25; Roddy, Development of the Catholic church in the Diocese of Vincennes, (1954); Rudolph-Endelman, Religion In Indiana, 133, 136, 172;

Gueguen, Rev. John:
   McDonald, (spelled Guiguen), 54, 154, 155, 211, 226, 338

Gueguen, Louis (b: 1834):
   Rudolph-Endelman, 174;

Guerin, Mother Theodore (1798-1856):
   Bailly, Life of Mother Theodore (1873); Code, Great American Foundresses, (1929), 292-325; Gouin, Historie de la Congregation des Soeurs de la Providence, (1972, 1977, 1981)[three histories of SP's with mentions of M. Theodore]; Sister of Providence, Life & Life Work of Mother Theodore (1904); Sr. Joseph Eleanor, The quest corageous (1945) [juvenile history]; Sr. Mary Loretta, The Soldier’s Daughter, A play in five acts, [depicts life of Mother Theodore] (1940); Memorial to Mother Theodore, (1941); Memorial To Mother Theodore, Guide to the twelve dioramas, (1941); Mug, Glimpses of Mother Theodore (n.d.), Madre Teodora Guerin, (1955); Positions & Articles, for canonization, (n.d.); Rudolph-Endelman Religion In Indiana, (1986), 179; Servante de Dieu, Mere’ Theodroe Guerin, (1925);

Hailandiere, Celestine de la, Bishop of Vincennes 1839-1848:
   Cadden, Historiography of the American Church, 67; Ellis, Priests in the U.S., 400f; Hennessey, First Vatican Council, 25, 124; Kraka, 2nd Bishop of Vincennes, St. Meinrad Hist. Essays, Vol. 3, No. 2 (1934), 134-140; McSweeney, Story of the Mountain-Vol. 1, 384; Rudolph-Endelman, Religion In Indiana, 133, 136, 172; Schauinger, Stephen T. Badin, 276; Schultheis, Pioneer Bishops of Indiana, (1950);

Indiana:
   America, Indiana and the Klan, Volume 37 (1927), 389, 558; Schauinger, Stephen T. Badin, Badin in Indiana, 134ff (1836), 265, Badin’s work in, 253ff, cholera in (1832-33), 249, creation of the see of Vincennes, 254, first orphan asylum, 241ff, Potawatomies expelled from (1838), 244ff;

Kundek, Joseph (1810-1857):
   Kundek, Letters to the Leopoldine Association, St. Meinrad Historical Essays, Vol. 3, No. 2-Vol. 5, No. 2, May 1935-May 1939;

Lalumiere, Simon Petit (1804-1857):
   Casey, First Priest of Bishop Brute, St. Meinrad Historical Essays, Vol. 3, No. 2, May 1934, 118-121; Rudolph-Endelman, Religion in Indiana, 133, 179;

Petit, Benjamin Marie (1811-1839):
   Ave Maria, Missionaries of Indiana, Vol. 1, No. 30, 9 December 1865, 474-75; Schauinger, Stephen T. Badin, 233, work for Indians, 245f; Wicke, Benjamin Mary Petit, Catholic Historical Society of Indiana, 2 December 1927, 5-10;

St. Palais, Maurice de, (1811-1877) Bishop of Vincennes 1848-1878:
   Azais, Notice biographique sur Mgr. Maurice de St. Palais etc. (1880); Endelman-Rudolph, Religion In Indiana, 136; Hennesey, First Vatican Council, 38, 95, 106, 155, 159, 169, 230, 274, 282; McDonald, 54, 226; Schultheis Pioneer Bishops of Indiana, (1950); Thompson, The Illinois Part of the Diocese of Vincennes, Illinois Catholic Historical Review, Vol. 4, No. 3, January 1922, 255-264, Vol. 4, No. 4, April 1922, 381- 396;

Vincennes, Indiana:
   Colburn Monthly, A Walk To, 6:416 (1822); Endelman- Rudolph, Religion In Indiana, 231; Ecclesiastical Review, John Francis Rivet, Volume 35, July 1906, 33-51, 113-123; Fogarty, The Vatican and the Americanist Crisis, 31, 41; Historical Magazine, Founder of, 4:355 (1860); M. Am. History, Founding of Post, 22:143 (1889); M. West History, Old Town of, 12:236, 578 (1890); Potters Am. Monthly, A Century Ago, 12:161, 289 (1879); Schauinger, Stephen T. Badin, Badin at Bazin consecration, 279, and Flaget at (1818), 168, Badin’s remaining year in, 275, Badin visits (1810), 157, diocese of created, 254, (1806-1808), 134ff, problem of church property, 73, problems at, 137f; Thompson, The Illinois Part of the Diocese of Vincennes, Illinois Catholic Historical Review, Vol. 4, No. 3, January 1922, 255-264, Vol. 4, No. 4, April 1922, 381-396;

Weinzaepfel, Roman OSB (1813-1895):
   Drapier, Report of the trial of Fr. Weinzaepfel, (1844); Rudolf-Endelman, Report of the Trial, n.p., 1844; Saum, St. Meinrad Historical Essays, Vol. 1, No. 1, May 1928, p. 38-47; Schmoll, The Exposure Exposed, Evansville Journal, (1846); Timmermeyer, The Rev. Roman Weinzaepfel, Washington, 1947;